Wohlers Report 2023 - Wohlers Associates (2023)

Wohlers Report 2023features the latest information you need to stay informed and expand your knowledge of the constantly evolving AM industry.

Wohlers Report 2023 - Wohlers Associates (1)

Gain a thorough understanding of AM and applications from pre- to post-processing, and learn about the latest technologies, applications, and trends from top industry experts

Receive industry intelligence you cannot find anywhere else from a worldwide network of experts, including service providers, AM system manufacturers, and producers of third-party materials.

Novices and industry veterans alike use theWohlers Reportto improve processes, make informed decisions, and expand their footprint.

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Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Remarks from ASTM International
  • A note from Terry Wohlers
  • About the Authors and Editors
  • Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Conversions
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  • Focus of this report
  • Introduction to AM and 3D printing
    • Processes and feedstock
    • Putting AM to work
  • History of AM
    • 1960s to the modern era
    • March 2022 to March 2023
  • Industry Survey
  • Applications
    • Prototyping
    • Tooling
    • Final part production
    • Additional applications
  • Industries
    • Aerospace
    • Medical
    • Dentistry
    • Automotive
    • Consumer products
    • Education and academic research
    • Power and energy
    • Government and military
    • Architectural models
    • Additive construction
    • Other industries
  • Myths and misconceptions
    • AM will replace conventional manufacturing
    • Complexity is free
    • AM is a “push button” process
    • Most AM systems are similar
    • AM is environmentally friendly
    • Few materials are available for AM
    • Metal AM produces parts inexpensively
    • AM parts are inferior to conventional parts
    • Every home will have a 3D printer


  • Processes
    • Material extrusion
    • Vat photopolymerization
    • Powder bed fusion
    • Material jetting
    • Binder jetting
    • Directed energy deposition
    • Sheet lamination
  • Materials
    • Polymers
    • New polymer products
    • Polymer pricing
    • Metals
    • Factors impacting the adoption of metals
    • New metal powders
    • Producing powders for metal AM
    • Metal powder pricing
    • Composites materials
    • Hybrid materials
    • Materials for metal casting
    • Ceramics and other materials
  • Third-party material producers
    • Open vs. closed material business models
    • Third-party producers
  • Materials database
    • Materials by process
    • Material producers and products


  • Revenue from AM worldwide
    • Products and services
    • Growth percentages
    • System manufacturers
    • R&D spending
    • Unit sales
    • Systems sold by region
    • Cumulative sales
    • Average selling price
    • Metal AM systems
  • Desktop 3D printers
    • Sales growth
    • Materials and R&D
  • AM material sales
    • Photopolymers
    • Polymer powders
    • Filaments
    • Metals
  • Service providers
    • Primary service market
    • Service provider survey
    • Contributing service providers
    • Survey results
    • Pre- and post-processing
    • Most profitable AM processes
    • Most profitable material
    • Revenue growth
    • Comments from service providers
  • Investment in publicly traded companies
    • Revenues and earnings
    • Looking ahead
  • Mergers and acquisitions
  • Corporate investments
  • CAD solid modeling


  • Benefits of AM
    • Biomimicry and generative design
    • Custom and limited product manufacturing
    • Digital inventories and part consolidation
    • Elimination of tooling
    • Optimized structures
    • Reduced lead time and on-demand manufacturing
    • Waste reduction and sustainability
  • Design for additive manufacturing
    • AM is not a replacement technology
  • Economic benefits of DfAM
    • Calculating part cost
  • DfAM strategies
    • Lightweighting
    • Support minimization
    • Minimizing residual stress and distortion
    • Improving surface finish
    • Part consolidation
    • Mass customization
    • Product performance improvements
  • Software
    • 3D scan-processing software
    • Topology optimization, design and algorithmic modeling
    • Repair
    • Simulation
    • Slicing and print preparation
    • Print management
    • Manufacturing execution systems
    • Security
    • Medical image processing
  • Process monitoring of metal powder bed fusion
    • Aconity3D
    • Addiguru
    • Addup
    • EOS
    • GE Additive
    • Layer Metrics
    • Manufacturing Demonstration Facility
    • Open Additive
    • Phase3D
    • Renishaw
    • Sigma Additive Solutions
    • SLM Solutions
    • Velo3D
    • Zeiss
    • Outlook
  • Post-processing
    • Polymer post-processing steps
    • Surface post-processing steps
    • AM par inspection
  • Cost and challenges
    • Operating costs
    • Cost justification
    • Machine throughput
    • Metal part production cost considerations
    • Safety considerations
    • Facility considerations
    • Additional equiptment
    • Qualification and quality
    • Educating designers
  • Scaling AM into production
    • Production systems
    • Software
    • Staff and maintenance
    • Post-processing
    • Finishing
    • Quality control


  • Installations by country
  • Africa
    • South Africa
  • Americas
    • Argentina
    • Brazil
    • Canada
    • United Sates
  • Asia/Pacific
    • China
    • India
    • Japan
    • South Korea
    • Singapore
    • Taiwan
  • Australasia
    • Australia
    • New Zealand
  • Europe
    • Austria
    • Belgium
    • Denmark
    • Finland
    • France
    • Germany
    • Greece
    • Italy
    • Netherlands
    • Norway
    • Poland
    • Portugal
    • Romania
    • Slovenia
    • Spain
    • Sweden
    • Switzerland
    • Turkey
    • United Kingdom
  • Middle East
    • Egypt
    • Israel


  • Trends
  • Patents
    • Patent litigation
  • Consortia and collaborations
    • ASTM AM Center of Excellence
    • America Makes
    • Fraunhofer Society
    • Women in 3D Printing
    • Mobility Goes Additive
    • Partnerships
    • Other groups and associations
  • AM standards
    • ASTM Committee F42
    • ISO/TC 261
    • AM Standardization Collaborative
  • AM activities at NASA
  • AM in the U.S. Department of Defense
  • U.S. government-sponsored R&D
    • National Science Foundation
    • DOD, DOE, and DOC
    • National Institutes of Health
  • U.S. national laboratories
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    • Sandia National Laboratories
  • Government-sponsored R&D in Europe
  • Academic activities and capabilities
    • Research innovations
    • The Americas
    • Asia/Pacific
    • Europe, Middle East, and Africa
    • Research institutes with AM capabilities
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  • Advancements suggest optimism
    • Technical directions and trends
    • Challenges ahead
  • Automated AM production
  • Emerging applications
    • Electronics
    • Food
    • Medicine
    • Other areas
  • Workforce development
  • Sustainability and a circular economy
  • Landscape of AM startups
  • Startups and early-stage investments
  • New AM companies
  • The future of AM
    • Market forecast
    • Growth drivers
    • Obstacles
    • Possible surprises in the future
    • Closing comments


  • Asia/Pacific
    • Aspect
    • Bright Laser Technologies
    • Eplus3D
    • Farsoon
    • Mimaki
    • UnionTech
    • XYZprinting
    • ZRapid
  • Germany
    • Arburg
    • BigRep
    • DMG Mori
    • EOS
    • SLM Solutions
    • Trumpf
    • Voxeljet
  • Other companies in Europe and the Middle East
    • Additive Industries
    • AddUp
    • Admatec
    • Digital Metal
    • DWS
    • Lithoz
    • Prodways
    • Renishaw
    • Sinterit
    • Sisma
    • Stratasys
    • XJet
  • U.S.
    • 3D Systems
    • Carbon
    • Desktop Metal
    • Essentium
    • Formlabs
    • GE Additive
    • HP
    • Markforged
    • Optomec


  • Appendix A: Glossary of terms
  • Appendix B: System manufacturer matrix
  • Appendix C: Metal AM comparison matrix
  • Appendix D: 3D scanning systems

Report Development Team

Principal authors:

Ian Campbell, Wohlers Associates (UK)
Olaf Diegel, Wohlers Associates (New Zealand)
Ray Huff, Wohlers Associates (U.S.)
Joseph Kowen, Wohlers Associates (Israel)
Terry Wohlers, Wohlers Associates (U.S.)

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Associate author:

Ismail Fidan, Tennessee Tech University (U.S.)

Editorial team:

Randall Newton
Clare Scott
Jenny van Rensburg

The following 91 individuals and organizations in 35 countries contributed to Wohlers Report 2023and served as important sources for information.

Henrique AlmeidaPolytechnic Institute of LeiriaPortugal
Fahmi Al-ShawwaImmensaUnited Arab Emirates
Hoda AmelManufacturing Technology CentreUK
Leah AppelhansSandia National LaboratoriesU.S.
Anton AulbersTNONetherlands
Nicolae BalcTechnical University of Cluj–NapocaRomania
Jon BaxendaleNational Composites CentreUK
Kris BinonFlam3DBelgium
Klas BoivieSINTEFNorway
Gerrie BooysenCentral University of TechnologySouth Africa
David BourellUniversity of Texas at AustinU.S.
Milan BrandtRMIT UniversityAustralia
Stefanie BrickwedeDeutsche BahnGermany
David BullockRapid 3DSouth Africa
Aditya ChandavarkarIndian 3D Printing NetworkIndia
Andy ChristensenUniversity of CincinnatiU.S.
Deon de BeerCentral University of TechnologySouth Africa
Alex DoukasKinetic VisionU.S.
Brian DrabWilliam Blair & CompanyU.S.
Igor DrstvenšekUniversity of MariborSlovenia
Nicholas EitsertFinnegan LLPU.S.
David EspalinUniversity of Texas at El PasoU.S.
Thomas FeldhausenOak Ridge National LaboratoryU.S.
Matthew FriedellColorado Air National GuardU.S.
Khalid Abdel GhanyCMRDIEgypt
Devon Hagedörn-HansenUniversity of JohannesburgSouth Africa
Shamil HargovanSTS Capital PartnersCanada
Chaw Sing HoNAMICSingapore
Seyed HosseiniRISE Research Institute of SwedenSweden
Tyler HutinWilliam Blair & CompanyU.S.
Jeng-Ywan JengNational Taiwan University of Science and Tech.Taiwan
Kevin JurrensNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyU.S.
Ryan KircherKircher ConsultingU.S.
Steve KleimakerCanada MakesCanada
Samuel LeguizamonSandia National LaboratoriesU.S.
Feng LinTsinghua UniversityChina
Henry MaSTS Capital PartnersCanada
Giorgio MagistrelliCASTRABulgaria
Julien MagnienSirrisBelgium
Stephan MansourASTM InternationalU.S.
Simon MarriottGoProtoAustralia
Manyalibo MatthewsLawrence Livermore National LaboratoryU.S.
Greg MorrisVertex ManufacturingU.S.
Tom MuellerMueller Additive Manufacturing SolutionsU.S.
Kristin MulherinWomen in 3D PrintingU.S.
Bernhard MüllerFraunhofer IWUGermany
Hideaki Oba3D Printing Industry Technology AssociationJapan
John ObielodanUniversity of Wisconsin–PlattevilleU.S.
Charles OveryLGMU.S.
Emiliano PaganiUniversity of Buenos AiresArgentina
Keun ParkSeoul National University of Science and Tech.Korea
Nick PearceAlexander Daniels GlobalU.S.
Joris Peels3DPrint.comNetherlands
Burak Pekcan90Turkey
Pat PicarielloASTM InternationalU.S.
Sebastian PiegertSiemens EnergyGermany
Alex PlotkowskiOak Ridge National LaboratoryU.S.
Kateřina PodanáKlastr MechatronikaCzech Republic
Michele PressaccoLimaCorporateItaly
Michael RaphaelDirect DimensionsU.S.
Olivier RigoSirrisBelgium
Elisa SalatinLimaCorporateItaly
Kyle SaleebyOak Ridge National LaboratoryU.S.
Mika SalmiAalto UniversityFinland
Marco SalvisbergGF Casting SolutionsSwitzerland
Fabio Sant ́AnaISO/TC 261Brazil
Steffen SchmidtDanish AM HubDenmark
Alexander SchmoeckelAM VenturesGermany
Luke ScimeOak Ridge National LaboratoryU.S.
Christian SeidelFraunhofer IGCVGermany
Mohsen SeifiASTM InternationalU.S.
Jorge Vicente Lopes da SilvaRenato Archer Information Technology CenterBrazil
Aidan SkoylesFinnegan LLPU.S.
Kinga SkrzekFuture Industry PlatformPoland
John SlotwinskiJohns Hopkins Applied Physics LaboratoryU.S.
Chris SpadacciniLawrence Livermore National LaboratoryU.S.
Jürgen StampflVienna University of TechnologyAustria
Riccardo ToninatoLimaCorporateItaly
Nora TouréWomen in 3D PrintingU.S.
Andrew TriantaphyllouMakeAmazingGreece
Kjeld van BommelTNONetherlands
Joel VascoPolytechnic Institute of LeiriaPortugal
Benoit VerquinCetimFrance
John VickersNASAU.S.
Neri VolpatoFederal University of Technology – ParanáBrazil
Nicole WakeGE HealthcareU.S.
Matthew Waterhouse3D MetalforgeSingapore
John WilczynskiAmerica MakesU.S.
David WimpennyManufacturing Technology CentreUK
Michal ZemkoKlastr MechatronikaCzech Republic
Naiara ZubizarretaADDIMATSpain

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If you want to use any information or data from the report to present, republish, or share in any form, please request permission. Normally, we are happy to grant permission to use one or two small pieces of information, but some items are off limits.

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Wohlers Report 2023 - Wohlers Associates (2)

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When will the next edition of theWohlers Reportbe published?

In past years, the report has been published in mid-to-late March. We would be happy to notify you when it is released. Let us know of your interest by sending a note towa@wohlersassociates.com.

How much of theWohlers Reportchanges from year to year?

Except for historical data, nearly all of the report is new each year. We believe it is important for the report to accurately reflect the current state of the industry and where it is headed.

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When purchasing up to 20 digital copies of the report, as well as past editions. If you anticipate more than 20 users of the report at your organization, please contact us with the approximate number and we will provide a quote by email.

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